How to install

The fitwrap module is available on github and can be installed via pip:

pip install fitwrap

This module provides a wrapper for the scipy function optimize.curve_fit(). The full fitting procedure is reduced in one-line command, moreover the initial fitting parameters and boundaries are set by the keyword arguments of the model fitting function. The package comes with the following functions:

  • fit: non linear 1D fit
  • fit2d: non linear 2D fit
  • fit_sin: sinusoidal fit with automatic fit function and initial guess.

Usage examples

Import the dependencies we need:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import fitwrap as fw

Simple fit

Lets start with a simple fit of a parabolic function.

Generate data with black box function

xx = np.linspace(-2,10, 30)
yy = 0.1*(xx-5)**2 + 0.5*(xx-5) + np.random.normal(size=xx.shape)*0.5

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(5,3))
ax = fig.add_subplot(111, xlabel="x", ylabel="y")
ax.scatter(xx, yy)

simple data

Define model function and fit

The first variable of the model function is the independent variable (in our case x). The following arguments will be used as fit parameters and will be initialized to 1 is not specified.

To fit the data with the model function it is sufficient to call the fit method:, xx, yy).

The function will print the fit results, specifying the best fitted value, the absolute error, the relative error and the initial guess for each of the fit parameters. It will plot the input data in green, the best fit curve and the confidence interval corresponding to the confidence probability of 0.95.

def model_function(x, x0, a2, a1):
    return a2*(x-x0)**2 + a1*(x-x0)

fit_out =, xx, yy)
x0:  0.18    +/- 0.191    (106.1%)  initial:1
a2:  0.11061 +/- 0.00668    (6.0%)  initial:1
a1:  -0.5875 +/- 0.0555    (-9.4%)  initial:1

simple fit

Initial guess for the fitting parameters

In order to set an initial guess for the initial parameters, pass the initial guess as default parameters in the model function. Keep in mind to place the initial guess to the most right arguments of the model function.

# Good
def model_function(x, x0, a2=0.5, a1=0.2):
    return a2*(x-x0)**2 + a1*(x-x0)

# Syntax Error
def model_function(x, x0=3, a2=0.5, a1):
    return a2*(x-x0)**2 + a1*(x-x0)
  File "<ipython-input-130-3f5a2423c6cd>", line 6
    def model_function(x, x0=3, a2=0.5, a1):
SyntaxError: non-default argument follows default argument

Fixed arguments

It is possible to fix an agument to exclude it from the fitting parameters using the special keyword fixed_args. Set it as the last parameter of the model function and pass the list of the name of the fitting parameters you want to fix.

Generate a new black box model

t_decay = np.linspace(0,20, 30)
y_decay = 0.1 + np.exp(-t_decay/2) + np.random.normal(size=t_decay.shape)*0.02

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(5,3))
ax = fig.add_subplot(111, xlabel="time", ylabel="y")
ax.scatter(t_decay, y_decay)

simple decay

Lets define the model function by fixing the offset of the exponential decay to 0. We expect the fit to be bad since our black box model has an offset of 0.1.

def model_function(t, off=0, tau=5, amp=1, fixed_args=['off']):
    return off + amp*np.exp(-t/tau)

fit_out_fixed =, t_decay, y_decay)
off:  0       Fixed
tau:  3.055   +/- 0.247      (8.1%)  initial:5
amp:  1.0271  +/- 0.0527     (5.1%)  initial:1

fixed offset

Bounded parameters

To fix the boundaries of a fitting parameter one can set its default value in the model definition as the tuple: (initial guess, lower bound, upper bound)

Lets set the offset to be bounded between 0.2 and 0.5. We expect again the fit function to fail.

def model_function(t, off=(0.4, 0.2, 0.5), tau=5, amp=1):
    return off + amp*np.exp(-t/tau)

fit_out_bound =, t_decay, y_decay)
off:  0.2     +/- 0.0207    (10.3%)  initial:(0.4, 0.2, 0.5)
tau:  1.505   +/- 0.27      (17.9%)  initial:5
amp:  0.9371  +/- 0.0882     (9.4%)  initial:1

bounded offset

Consider errors on data points

It is possible to consider errors on the y variable by passing an array of sigmas to the fit function.

Generate a new black box model

Let us now consider two different types of errors: amplitude error (left plot) and offset error (right plot).

t_decay = np.linspace(0,10, 30)
y_decay = 0.1 + np.exp(-t_decay/2) + np.random.normal(size=t_decay.shape)*0.03
y_decay_err_1 =  (0.01 + np.exp(-t_decay/2))/2
y_decay_err_2 =  1/(y_decay_err_1*1e3)

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(10,3))
ax1 = fig.add_subplot(121, xlabel="time", ylabel="y")
ax1.errorbar(t_decay, y_decay, y_decay_err_1, fmt='o')

ax2 = fig.add_subplot(122, xlabel="time", ylabel="y")
ax2.errorbar(t_decay, y_decay, y_decay_err_2, fmt='o')

decay err data

Lets fit the two datasets including the different errors.

def model_function(t, off=0.1, tau=5, amp=1):
    return off + amp*np.exp(-t/tau)

fig, (ax1, ax2) = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(10,3))

print('Error on amplitude:')
fit_out_err_1 =, t_decay, y_decay, 
         sigma=y_decay_err_1, fig_ax=(fig, ax1))

print('\nError on offset:')
fit_out_err_2 =, t_decay, y_decay,
        sigma=y_decay_err_2, fig_ax=(fig, ax2))

decay err

Example of automatic sinusoidal fit

import fitwrap as fw
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
%matplotlib inline

def my_signal(t, off, amp, freq, phase):
    return  off + amp * np.sin(2*np.pi*freq*t + phase)

times = np.random.random(100)
signals = my_signal(times, 0.5, 2, 4, np.pi/4) + (np.random.random(times.shape)-0.5)*NOISE_LEVEL
errors = np.abs(my_signal(times, 0, 1, 4, np.pi/2))/2+0.01

fw.fit_sin(times, signals, sigma=errors)

Fitting function model: y = off + amp * sin(2 * pi * freq * x + phase)
off: 0.5493 +/- 0.0661 (12.0%) initial:0.6485271451564831
amp: 1.969 +/- 0.222 (11.3%) initial:4.236288465011205
freq: 3.9981 +/- 0.026 (0.7%) initial:4.043991443019413
phase: 0.73 +/- 0.149 (20.4%) initial:0.39269908169872414 <?xml version=”1.0” encoding=”utf-8” standalone=”no”?>

Example of 2D fit

import fitwrap as fw
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
%matplotlib inline

def g2(yx, x0=21, y0=32, sx=8, sy=5):
    return np.exp(-(yx[1]-x0)**2/(2*sx**2) -(yx[0]-y0)**2/(2*sy**2))
yx = np.mgrid[:100,:40]
gg = g2(yx, 20, 30, 5, 5)+(0.5-np.random.random(yx[0].shape))*0.2

fw.fit2d(g2, yx, gg, x_rescale=2, y_rescale=0.5)

x0: 20.0004 +/- 0.0459 (0.2%) initial:21
y0: 30.0435 +/- 0.0455 (0.2%) initial:32
sx: 5.0078 +/- 0.0398 (0.8%) initial:8
sy: 4.9602 +/- 0.0394 (0.8%) initial:5 <?xml version=”1.0” encoding=”utf-8” standalone=”no”?>

Example of lomb spectrum

import fitwrap as fw
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
%matplotlib inline

def chirped(t, off, amp, freq, phase):
    return  off + amp * np.sin(2*np.pi*(freq + t*4)*t + phase)

def chirped2(t, off, amp, freq, phase):
    return  off + amp * np.sin(2*np.pi*(freq)*t + phase)

xx = np.random.random(3000)
yy = chirped(xx, 0.5, 2, 6, np.pi*0) + (np.random.random(xx.shape)-0.5)*NOISE_LEVEL
yy = yy + chirped2(xx, 0.5, 2, 20, 2)

xmin = np.min(xx)
xmax = np.max(xx)
span = 0.2
n_bins = 40
x_bins = np.linspace(xmin+span, xmax-span, n_bins)

freq_1d, lomb_spectrum_1d = fw.lomb_spectrum(xx, yy, frequency_span=[1,30], grid_size=1000)

spectrogram = np.zeros([1000, n_bins])

for index, x_bin in enumerate(x_bins):
    mask = np.logical_and((x_bin-span)<=xx, (x_bin+span)>=xx) 
    frequency_grid, lombscargle_spectrum = fw.lomb_spectrum(xx[mask], yy[mask],
                                                            frequency_span=[1,30], grid_size=1000)
    spectrogram[:, index] = lombscargle_spectrum

fig, [ax1, ax2, ax3] = plt.subplots(1,3, figsize=(12,3))
ax1.plot(*zip(*sorted(zip(xx, yy), key=lambda x: x[0])))
ax2.plot(freq_1d, lomb_spectrum_1d)
ax3.imshow(spectrogram, aspect='auto', extent=[x_bins[0],x_bins[-1],
            frequency_grid[0],frequency_grid[-1]], origin='lower') 

<?xml version=”1.0” encoding=”utf-8” standalone=”no”?>